- Regulatory Decision Making
- Nuclear Safety Assessment
- Inspection Activities
- Regulatory Activities over RAW and NM
- Supervision of the Radwaste Shipments
- Supervision of the management of radwaste
- Supervision of Nuclear Material Management
- Emergency Preparedness
- Qualification and Training
- Building Authority for Nuclear Installations
- International Cooperation
Measures in the event of an incident
In the event of an accident at a nuclear installation, radioactive gases and aerosols may be released from the nuclear installation. The release of radioactive substances into surface or ground water in an emergency is less likely and does not generally cause exposure of large populations immediately after the incident.
The released radioactive airborne materials mix with the air during the event, dilute and spread into the surrounding area. In addition, the activity of radionuclides, especially those with short half-lives, is progressively reduced by their transformation. The rate of dispersion and mixing, the direction of dispersion, the height at which the contaminated air resides, and the proportion of radionuclides that fall out of the air mixture and settle on the ground surface (on soil, plants, buildings, etc.) depend mainly on local meteorological conditions. The mass of contaminated air thus formed is called a radioactive cloud.
In the event of an accident at a nuclear installation and the spread of radioactivity to the environment, it is necessary to ensure that the exposure of the population is as low as possible and reasonably achievable. This will be achieved by measures at the nuclear installation to limit or stop the release of radioactive substances and by the appropriate application of protective measures to protect the public. Protective measures in the early, intermediate and partly in the late phase include sheltering, iodine prophylaxis, evacuation, prohibition of consumption of unpackaged food, regulation of food consumption, temporary relocation of the population, resettlement, decontamination of persons, decontamination of the contaminated area, medical care of exposed and contaminated persons.
In the early phase of the accident, the exposure is due to external radiation caused by radionuclides that are in the radioactive cloud and radionuclides that gradually fall out of the cloud and are deposited on the Earth’s surface. In addition, exposure is caused by inhalation of radionuclides from the radioactive plume. It is assumed that the population at this stage will follow the instructions and not consume contaminated food.
In the intermediate and late phases, there is an external exposure of the population caused by radionuclides that have fallen out of the plume and deposited on surfaces. In addition, inhalation of deposited radionuclides contributes to the internal exposure, which can be dispersed in the air under favourable conditions. Consumption of foodstuffs (ingestion) whose radionuclide contamination is below the permissible levels may also contribute to exposure.
Measures in times of threat
Measures must be taken as a precautionary measure in the period from the threat of a leak to the release of radioactive substances into the surroundings.
Responsibility for ordering measures for the protection of the population shall lie with:
- the holder of the operating licence for the nuclear installation, if the event did not extend beyond the territory of the nuclear installation,
- the mayor of the municipality, if the incident did not extend beyond the cadastral territory of the municipality,
- the head of the district authority, if the emergency does not extend beyond the territorial perimeter of the region,
- the Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic, if the emergency exceeded the territorial perimeter of a single region.
The executive body whose task is to analyse the risks of a crisis situation, to propose measures to deal with it and to coordinate the activities of the units under its responsibility during a crisis situation is the Crisis Staff. In accordance with Act No. 387/2002 Coll. on the Management of the State in Crisis Situations Outside Times of War and Martial Law, as amended, the Government of the Slovak Republic establishes the Central Crisis Staff, and district authorities and municipalities their own Crisis Staffs.
Notification of emergency responders and preparation of public warnings
The information about the threat or incident at the NI will be received by the Coordination Centre of the Integrated Rescue Services of the District Office in the seat of the region, whose task will be to notify the persons active in dealing with events at the NI and to check the readiness of warning means in the municipalities and designated organisations by the so-called “silent test”.
Preparation for possible early emergency action in the area of emergency planning zone. The main focus should be on:
- preparation of protective structures,
- replenishing iodine prophylactic needs from the reserve and where necessary,
- preparation of forces and means to regulate the movement of people and vehicles,
- preparation of evacuation arrangements (especially professional evacuation arrangements),
- control and preparation of personal protective equipment (PPE) and improvised PPE,
- preparation of medical measures,
- preparation of hygienic measures with emphasis on food and water consumption,
- preparation for hygienic cleansing,
- preparation of veterinary measures,
- implementation of the preparatory measures by the members of the Crisis Staff (CS) of the Municipality,
- specifying the necessary documentation,
- checking the services and means to carry out rescue operations.
Informing the population about measures in the period of threat according to Annex No. 4 of the Decree No. 55/2006 of the ÚJD SR, as amended.
Pursuant to Act No. 541/2004 Coll. and Decree No. 55/2006 of the ÚJD SR, the permit holder is obliged to inform about the incident or accident, the degree of severity and its expected development, about measures in the period of threat and about urgent and subsequent measures for the protection of the population in the early, intermediate and late phases. In the event of an accident, this information will also be made available on the website of the ÚJD SR.
Urgent actions at an early stage
Notification of persons involved in dealing with the consequences of incidents or accidents and warning of the public
Warning of the population and notification of persons is a set of technical and organisational measures for the immediate and timely notification of the population, employees of nuclear installations, contractors, public and private organisations and selected persons in the emergency planning zone on an emergency in a nuclear installation associated with a release or threat of release of radioactive substances into the environment. The warning and notification systems have been built on a philosophy of mutual independence and complement each other.
The technical means of the Public Warning System is an electronic siren with an audible warning signal and spoken information. Warning of the population shall be carried out by means of agreed acoustic signals:
- GENERAL THREAT – a two-minute fluctuating siren tone accompanied by spoken information, repeated 3 times
- END OF THREAT – a two-minute steady siren tone without repetition, accompanied by spoken information “End of threat”
- SIREN TEST – a two-minute steady siren tone without repetition, accompanied by spoken information “Attention, siren test” at the beginning and “End of siren test” at the end, repeated 3 times
For an event classified as ‘EMERGENCY IN THE NI and/or EMERGENCY IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF NI’, the warning sound signal is supplemented by the spoken information ‘Caution, Radiation Emergency’, transmitted directly from the Warning System.
Technical means of notification of the population in the area of emergency planning zone:
- Slovak Radio
- Slovak TV
- Municipal radio and TV (their use is ensured by the self-government)
- Plant/factory radio (their use is ensured by individual organisations)
Warning and notification of authorities, organisations, population and designated persons in the vicinity of the NI shall be carried out by:
- on the premises and in all objects of the nuclear installation and in the emergency planning zone – the licence holder,
- in the rest of the territory in accordance with Act No. 42/1994 Coll. of the NC SR on civil protection of the population as amended and Decree No. 388/2006 of the Ministry of the Interior of the SR on ensuring technical and operational conditions of the civil defence information system as amended – Crisis Staff, designated state administration bodies, municipalities and other legal entities.
Monitoring Radiological Situation
The monitoring of the radiological situation is ensured both by the holders of license for the operation of nuclear installations and by the competent state authorities. Data collection is coordinated through the Radiation Monitoring Network Headquarters, which is one of the branches of the Public Health Authority.
The monitoring of the radiological situation is intended to serve the need to warn of elevated levels of radiation in the environment (early warning network), but also to better target protective measures in cases where a serious radiological accident has already occurred.
Regulation of the Movement of Persons and Means of Transport
Regulation of the movement of persons and means of transport is planned in the emergency planning zone and is provided simultaneously with the warning of the population. Regulation of the movement of persons and means of transport shall mean:
- traffic diversion,
- preventing unauthorised persons from entering the emergency planning zone,
- ensuring the smooth passage of rescue services of the integrated rescue system,
- ensuring the smooth removal of persons from the emergency planning zone,
- preventing the evacuated population from returning prematurely,
- preventing the spread of the effects of hazardous substances outside the emergency planning zone,
- the designation and establishment of control posts for access control.
Regulation of movement of persons and vehicles is effected immediately after the warning and notification in the area defined by the 21 km radius at the Jaslovské Bohunice site and in the area defined by the 20 km radius at the Mochovce site without waiting for the results of monitoring and the decision of the CS. The locations and specific activities shall be refined in the light of the actual situation and the measures to be taken.
Regulation of the movement of persons and means of transport is managed by the concerned district offices, while its planning is coordinated by the District Office in the seat of the region, and regulation after the emergence of a radiological accident is ensured by the Police Corps (PZ), the Railway Police (ŽP), municipal police or civil defence units within the meaning of the applicable legislation of the individual services.
Pre-medical First Aid and Emergency Medical Care
Pre-medical first aid will be provided by available means, including self-help and mutual assistance of citizens. Emergency medical care will be provided in health facilities.
Partial Hygienic Cleansing of Persons
Partial hygienic cleansing should be carried out throughout the duration of the radiation exposure.
During evacuation, hygienic cleaning will be carried out in accessible facilities, accommodation and the home.
Sanitation shall be specified, revoked, or ordered in the next area according to the results of the monitoring and the decision of the Crisis Staff.
Use of Special Personal Protective Equipment – Individual Protection
Individual protection of the population must be implemented by improvised means, which are used without prompting immediately after the population is warned following an emergency associated with a release of a hazardous substance. Special means of individual protection shall be used by the emergency services and civil defence units. The decision to dispense PPE to the population shall be issued by the Central Crisis Staff, based on the results of the monitoring, respecting the principle that the dispensing of PPE may only be carried out in an area not threatened by radioactive fallout.
Sheltering is a fairly simple measure that can reduce the exposure of residents in areas where a radioactive plume will pass or is passing through. This will take advantage of the protective properties of buildings. The protective properties of buildings depend on the shelter’s construction material, the thickness of the walls, the number and tightness of windows and doors, and the discipline and regime in the shelter.
Sheltering will be ordered in the event of an emergency involving a radioactivity release, even if evacuation is subsequently envisaged. Once sheltering has been ordered, in the event of an emergency, it is necessary for persons to stay in sealed buildings.
The aim of sheltering is to limit:
- external radiation from the contaminated plume and from radionuclides deposited on the surface,
- internal exposure due to inhalation of radionuclides present in contaminated air,
- surface contamination of persons in the affected area.
For short-term releases, sheltering can reduce inhalation-induced exposures by up to a factor of three. The reduction in inhalation dose is achieved by enclosing the shelter and, if possible, sealing it, thereby reducing the penetration of activity from the external environment. With prolonged leakage and inadequate shelter tightness, the effectiveness decreases.
Sheltering can reduce the irradiance caused by external radiation from plume and deposit by a few tens of percent up to a factor of 10, up to a factor of 1000 in well-screened areas. The reduction in exposure depends on the location of the shelter, the type of building material, the thickness of the walls and the size and number of windows.
Where to take shelter?
Shelters in the basement without windows provide the highest level of protection. If the building does not have a basement, it is advisable to shelter in an area that is in the centre of the building and has no windows. The attic is generally not suitable for sheltering.
How should the shelter be equipped?
The shelter should provide reasonably comfortable seating or even lying areas. Do not forget suitable clothing or blankets. A two-day supply of drinking water and packed food should be available. Sanitary facilities should also be available. If not otherwise possible, a temporary solution should be provided. It is necessary to have regularly taken medicines available, as well as medicines that may need to be taken (painkillers, sedatives). If there is a young child in the shelter, appropriate food and hygiene items should be provided. If there is a pet (dog, cat, etc.) in the shelter, water and food for them should also be provided. It is also necessary to have a battery-operated light source (in case of power failure) and a battery-operated radio receiver. Don’t forget to charge and take a cell or landline phone to the shelter. A book or board games are handy for distraction.
What will need to be done before taking shelter?
Before sheltering, care must be taken to house and provide fodder and water for livestock, pets must be cared for, if there is time, fodder supplies must be covered, and, food supplies must be packed. If there are elderly or sick people living in the neighbourhood, it is necessary to check whether the signal has reached them, whether they have shelter and the necessary care.
If family members are at work or school at the time of the shelter order, shelter, if necessary, will be provided at the workplace or school. The family need not be sheltered together.
How to behave in the shelter?
Remain calm, do not engage in unnecessary physical activity, do not smoke, monitor radio or television broadcasts and, if possible, follow local public radio announcements and warning signals. If there are sick people in the shelter, appropriate conditions and care should be provided for them. If there are pets in the shelter, provide suitable conditions for them, but do not let them out to be walked, they could bring contamination into the shelter.
Remember to turn off the air conditioning and extinguish open fires. If sheltering would take longer than 3 to 5 hours, air exchange should be provided in the shelter, preferably from other enclosed rooms. In the event of acute health problems of the sheltered person, an ambulance can be called to provide instructions for further action.
Is there a need for a ‘Domestic Emergency Plan”?
A family emergency plan is not necessary. However, it is helpful if the tasks involved in preparing the shelter and its equipment, as well as in sheltering and staying in the shelter, are clarified in advance, and each person is clear about what his or her role will be and how he or she is to behave.
How long can sheltering last?
Sheltering can take several hours. It is not expected to last longer than 48 hours.
How to behave when it is necessary to leave the shelter for a while?
The shelter is not to be abandoned until the measure is lifted. If it is necessary to leave the shelter temporarily, clothing to prevent contamination of the body surface, gloves, goggles and a makeshift respirator (wet towel or sufficiently thick cloth) to protect the upper respiratory tract should be used. Stay out of shelter for as short a time as possible. Before returning to the shelter, remove outer clothing and footwear carefully, place them in a suitable container and wash uncovered parts of the skin thoroughly with uncontaminated water.
What happens after the sheltering is over?
Sheltering can be terminated by a signal or a message. If the threat has passed and the radioactive plume has not spread or is low in activity at the shelter site, the normal course of action may be followed. However, it is still necessary to monitor information on the situation in and around the site.
If the threat continues, sheltering may be followed by evacuation. It is necessary to prepare for it and follow the instructions.
What to do if the warning signal catches you in open terrain or in a vehicle in an area where sheltering has been ordered?
When in open terrain, you should take shelter in the nearest suitable building, if possible report to your family where you are. If you are in a vehicle, the vehicle does not provide sufficient protection. Follow the instructions of the police. If you have sufficient information and opportunity, it is advisable to move perpendicular to the direction of spread of the radioactive plume and get to an uncontaminated zone.
The iodine prophylactic distributed to the population in the area of concern shall be used as soon as instructed to do so. The instruction shall be given without waiting for the results of monitoring of the actual radiological situation. The dosage is according to the instructions on the packaging. Prophylaxis is most effective if given 2 hours before the arrival of a contaminated radioactive plume.
Depending on the evolution of the actual radiation situation, especially in the case of a persistent leak, the population shall, on the instructions of the competent authorities, repeatedly take half the dose. Pregnant and lactating women shall take a maximum of two doses. Persons sensitive to iodine or suffering from thyroid disease shall consult a physician in advance about the use of the prophylactic and the recommended dosage.
In an accident at a nuclear reactor, at an early stage, radioisotopes of iodine usually contribute significantly to the exposure of the population. Iodine is a volatile substance which escapes with noble gases when the barriers are broken.
The risk posed by radioactive iodine is specific. If iodine is inhaled or ingested, it accumulates in the thyroid gland, regardless of whether the iodine is radioactive or not. If the iodine that has entered the body is radioactive and accumulates in the thyroid gland, due to the small size of the gland, a radioactive emitter is produced there, which irradiates and threatens the thyroid gland itself in the first place. Between 20 and 50 mg of iodine are found in the human body. Of the total amount, 10-15 mg (i.e. 20 – 30 %) is found in the thyroid gland. Iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones.
Purpose of iodine prophylaxis
An effective preventive measure in such a case is to saturate the thyroid gland with non-radioactive iodine, before radioactive iodine begins to accumulate in the thyroid gland. Non-reactive iodine in the form of potassium iodide tablets is distributed in the emergency planning zone so that it is available for the population to use at the right time. The saturated thyroid gland then takes up the radioactive iodine only to a small extent, so that the radioactive iodine is excreted to a greater extent.
When to take iodine pills?
It is important that the intake of inactive iodine occurs, if possible, before the arrival of the radioactive plume. Ingestion at least 2 hours before the passage of the radioactive plume is most effective. If taken at the time of or after the passage of the plume, the effectiveness decreases. Conversely, if taken too early, the effectiveness of prophylaxis also decreases. In any case, it is advisable to await the instruction of the competent authority. Otherwise, it may happen that you take iodine prematurely, and when it is really needed, you will no longer have it available. Saturation of the thyroid gland with inactive iodine is only effective for a limited time. If the intake of radioactive iodine lasts for a longer period of time the prophylaxis needs to be repeated.
The graph is taken from a WHO publication “Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents Update 1999“.
What doses of stable potassium iodide are needed?
- Children up to 1 month 16.25 mg KI ¼ tablet
- Children 1-36 months 32.5 mg KI ½ tablet
- Children 3-12 years 65 mg KI 1 tablet
- Over 12 years 130 mg KI 2 tablet
The use of higher doses of potassium iodide than indicated does not increase the protective effect. If the radiation situation so requires, the competent authority shall notify the residents to take a further half dose of potassium iodide after 24 or 48 hours.
Can taking iodine tablets have harmful effects?
Iodine prophylaxis shall be given to all persons, including pregnant and lactating women, in the event of a radiation accident. Exceptions are persons hypersensitive to iodine preparations or those treated or being treated for thyroid disorders. In the event of an allergic reaction, a doctor should be contacted. Side effects are very rare and not serious from a health point of view. Persons who are concerned about side effects and live in the emergency planning zone may wish to check with their doctor in advance about possible side effects.
What to do when we are in a shelter and we don’t have enough tablets for all the people?
Preferably give prophylactics to children, they are more sensitive. The World Health Organization has stated that people over 40 should only be given prophylactics if a very high thyroid dose (around 5 Gy) is expected. However, our regulations do not yet specify such a restriction on prophylaxis.
How to dispose of distributed pills?
Tablets should be stored in the original packaging, including the leaflet, in a cool and dark place where there are no large variations in temperature. The tablets should not be accessible to children or persons who would use them inappropriately. It is very important to remember where the tablets are stored. It is advisable to keep them in a permanent place so that they can be found if necessary!
Prohibition of Consumption of Unprotected Food, Water and Feed
An early precaution, if there has been a radioactive leak, is also to ban the consumption of unprotected food. This is because unpackaged food, agricultural products, forest fruits, mushrooms, livestock products grown or growing wild in the emergency planning zone (the affected area) that are not suitably protected (packaged, preserved, stored) may be contaminated with surface radioactivity.
Such an order is often issued in parallel with a shelter order. During the period of prohibition, only food that could not have been surface contaminated may be consumed. At the same time, care must be taken when handling such foodstuffs to avoid secondary contamination.
The ban is precautionary and is issued without monitoring food contamination. Compliance with this prohibition will largely exclude internal exposure due to consumption (ingestion) at an early stage.
What can be consumed?
At an early stage, tap water may also be used if the source is a groundwater source. Bottled water is preferred. All foodstuffs that have already been tightly packed, canned or otherwise sealed and stored in advance of the arrival of the plume may be used. Care must be taken in the handling of foodstuffs to avoid contamination of water and foodstuffs during handling.
Evacuation is an urgent protective measure in which the population or part of the population is temporarily moved from an area where exposure in excess of specified levels is expected to occur to an uncontaminated area. The aim of evacuation is to avoid or reduce exposure:
- from external radiation from the radioactive plume and radioactivity deposited on the surface,
- from inhalation of radionuclides,
- caused by surface contamination of the skin.
The most effective evacuation is the one that was carried out before the radioactive plume spread to the evacuated area. Such an evacuation can avoid radiation exposure completely. The effectiveness of the evacuation decreases if it is carried out afterwards or at a time when the radioactive plume was in the evacuated area. Evacuation, as an early measure, is generally carried out on the basis of a prediction of the situation, not on the basis of specific measurements. Evacuation is the measure that most disrupts the normal way of life. Evacuation is an economically demanding measure that requires extremely complex logistical arrangements, so problems and unwanted complications can be expected, especially with large numbers of evacuees. It is therefore necessary to follow the instructions of the controlling authorities precisely when evacuating.
How is the evacuation taking place?
Evacuation is a measure that is very demanding in terms of material provision and organisation. If residents do not consistently follow instructions, chaos can result. Therefore, local instructions must be followed and adhered to.
Evacuees shall assemble at the evacuation assembly point. From the boarding station, evacuees will be transported to uncontaminated areas via the check points that control the transport, to the control station. Transportation of evacuated citizens, or animals and other material, will be carried out along existing roads. Private passenger motor vehicles, vehicles of transport organisations, municipalities, legal persons and entrepreneurs may be used for transport. At a checkpoint established in a non-contaminated area, if evacuation has already been carried out from a contaminated area, monitoring of personal contamination and registration of evacuees shall be carried out, among other things. Evacuees and their luggage shall be sorted according to contamination. If necessary, decontamination shall be arranged and carried out at the site. The evacuees shall then be moved to the emergency accommodation site where emergency accommodation or resupply or food will be provided.
Evacuation by own means of transport is not ruled out, but will be managed so as not to create chaos. Unorganised exodus from the threatened area shall be directed to designated evacuation routes and at the same time the access of the population to the threatened area shall be prevented. Priority for evacuation may be given to certain population groups.
How is the population divided into groups and which groups can be prioritised?
In the event that evacuation of a large number of inhabitants is necessary, it may be carried out in stages, with priority being given to the most vulnerable groups of the population. Decree No. 328/2012 of the Ministry of the Interior of the SR divides the population into the following groups:
- kindergarten children, primary school pupils, secondary school pupils, as well as children and pupils of the school establishment,
- mothers and other eligible persons in the household with children,
- persons placed in a health, social services or care institution, social welfare services, social services for children and social guardianship,
- persons with disabilities in a household with a family member or person, who provides assistance to a person with a disability,
- other population.
In addition, radiation protection principles state that priority should be given to evacuating persons who may be exposed to the highest doses, especially if they are at risk of deterministic effects.
What can evacuees take with them?
It will be possible to take your luggage when evacuating. According to Annex 2 of Decree No. 328/2012 of the Ministry of the Interior of the SR, the weight of luggage may be no more than 25 kg for an adult, 15 kg for a child, in addition, hand luggage weighing 3.5 kg may be carried.
Recommended luggage content:
- personal documents, money and other valuables,
- medicines and essential medical supplies,
- basic food and drinking water for two to three days,
- personal hygiene items,
- pocket lamp,
- a blanket or sleeping bag,
- spare personal underwear, spare clothing, spare shoes and a waterproof jacket,
- other essential personal items.
Luggage must be labelled with name address and telephone number.
How long does an evacuation take?
In the event of an accident at a nuclear facility, evacuation is expected to take up to 7 days. If necessary, evacuation can be extended. According to Decree No. 328/2012 of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic, evacuation is divided into short-term evacuation, which lasts less than 72 hours, and long-term evacuation, which lasts more than 72 hours.
Once the evacuation is complete, what will follow?
The competent authority shall decide on the termination of the evacuation.
- If the site from which the evacuees have been evacuated is not contaminated or the contamination of the area is very low, the evacuees will be transported back after the evacuation is terminated. In this case, no restrictions on food regimes or consumption are necessary.
- The return of evacuees is also possible if the evacuated area is contaminated to a level that allows normal life with certain restrictions on the mode of life or on the use of certain areas or facilities. In this case, evacuees will be given information on the contamination and instructions on how to behave on their return.
- In the event that contamination of part of the evacuated area is high, the immediate return of evacuees will not be possible. The evacuation of persons from the contaminated part will change to temporary relocation or resettlement. The contamination of the area will be progressively reduced by radionuclide conversion and decontamination. When the contamination falls below permissible levels, the relocated persons will be allowed to return.
Specific evacuation details and instructions for residents will be publicized on local radio and mass media in an emergency situation. More detailed information will also be published on the ÚJD SR website. In an emergency situation, information will also be provided by a dedicated information centre.
Measures in the Intermediate and Late Stages
Regulation of the Movement of Persons and Vehicles
In the implementation of this measure, state police and municipal police units – or civil defence units – will be decisive. The main efforts will be concentrated on ensuring the smooth removal of persons from the emergency area or preventing the evacuated population from returning prematurely, as well as the spread of the effects of hazardous substances outside the emergency area.
Regulating the Consumption of Radioactively Contaminated Food, Water and Feed
Food consumption control is a measure that is applied in the intermediate and late stages. In this situation, there is room and time to monitor the activity of individual food components and products of agricultural and livestock production. Based on the results of the monitoring, a decision on the suitability of the food for consumption will be made. Government Regulation (EC) No. 345/2006 lays down the permissible levels of contamination of foodstuffs in the event of a radiological emergency.
Compliance with this measure will significantly reduce the internal exposure due to consumption (ingestion), which will also significantly reduce the total exposure (effective dose) in the intermediate and late phases.
Which foods will be affected by the restrictions?
These are mainly agricultural and livestock products produced on the contaminated site. Particular attention will be paid to infant formula, baby food, vegetables, milk, dairy products and meat. Of course, wild fruit, mushrooms, tea and game meat will also be regulated. The ban will apply to those articles whose activity exceeds the permissible levels.
Temporary Relocation and Resettlement
Temporary relocation and resettlement are measures that are applied in the intermediate and especially in the late phase to limit medium- and long-term exposures caused mainly by external exposure from contaminated land. These measures shall be implemented on the basis of the results of detailed measurements. The implementation of these measures shall exclude further external exposure as well as inhalation of deposited radionuclides and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.
Deactivation of the Affected Area
Deactivation needs to start early in the radiation accident. Deactivation in the event of a NI radiological emergency can be divided into:
- Deactivation within the competence of individual citizens
Before sheltering the population in apartments, workplaces or shelters, deactivation of clothing, belongings and material is carried out.
- Deactivation within the competence of businesses
Legal entities – entrepreneurs who organize civil defence units to provide deactivation for their facilities.
- Deactivation of buildings, roads or terrain in the competence of District Office
It shall be carried out using appropriate technical means secured from legal persons and entrepreneurs.
Further information related to the public protection plan in the event of an accident or emergency at a nuclear installation can be obtained from the Department of Civil Protection and Crisis Management of the District Office in the seat of the region.