Problems concerning safeguards of nuclear materials and their control became topical in a moment when international community came to realize a danger which use of nuclear weapons represents for mankind and also for the environment. It resulted in necessity to introduce a system, in which the materials and technologies which could be misused to product nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive facility, would be controlled.
Commitment of states expressing their positive approach to the solution of problems was realized by accession of concrete states to the Convention on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (thereinafter Convention). This Convention, taking into account destructive consequences of nuclear weapons, acknowledged five countries- owners of nuclear weapons at this time (USA, USSR, UK, France, China) and all other parties to Convention which did not have nuclear weapons and committed them not to accept nuclear weapons directly or indirectly from anybody and not to acquire look after them in any way as well as not to accept any help for their production.
The objective of the Convention is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapon and diminish danger of nuclear war and in such a way to increase mankind security. The way how to reach this objective is set out in the Convention provisions. Former Czechoslovakia accessed this Convention on July 1st, 1968.
International safeguard system is based on agreements related to the Convention, which was due to necessity to obtain all important details concerning nuclear programme, extended in individual countries by the Additional Protocol.
Czechoslovakia as a party to the Convention on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons committed itself to accept safeguard of International Atomic Energy Agency(thereinafter IAEA) with the aim of verification of fulfilment of Convention requirements with regard to prevent diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful use to use in nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive facilities. The safeguard agreement concluded between Czechoslovakia and the IAEA is known as INFCIRC/173.
In relation with entering of the Slovak Republic to the European Union the safeguards of EURATOM started to be implemented in the Slovak Republic Based on Chapter VII of Convention EURATOM and based on Commission Regualtion (EURATOM) No. 302/2005 on implementation of EURATOM safeguards.
Since December 1st, 2005 a trilateral safeguard agreement and its Additional Protocol has been in force (INFCIRC/193) among the IAEA, EURATOM and the Slovak Republic, which replaced till then valid bilateral safeguard agreement.
Accountancy and control of nuclear materials
A state system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials, which is implemented in the Slovak Republic, was built by former Czechoslovak Commission for Atomic Energy (CSKAE) and after separation of Czechoslovakia this system was taken over by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. This system is based on requirements of safeguard agreement and takes into account agreement requirements as well as requirements of European legislation valid for this area. The Authority manages a state system of accountancy of nuclear materials in compliance with provisions of §4, par 1 letter k) of Atomic Act. Accountancy and control is performed in compliance with §13 of Atomic Act and in compliance with decree No. 54/2006 on accountancy and control of nuclear materials and on notification of selected activities.
Prevention of misuse of nuclear materials as well as illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, detecting of nuclear materials losses and providing information leading to their finding is the aim of the state system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials. Performing inspection activities in given field the Authority executes independent inspections and inspections made together with inspectors of the IAEA and EURATOM.