5) NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND PHYSICAL
PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS
The goal of the regulatory
activity in the field of nuclear materials management is to ensure that nuclear materials
are used in accordance with an UJD permit, which is issued only for those applicants who
prove their capability to use nuclear materials in accordance with legal regulations and
international commitments of the SR. The applicant must ensure that nuclear materials are
not diverted to nuclear weapons or to other activities which are in contradiction with and
international commitments of the SR (safeguards and physical protection), and that the
health of public and environment is not affected by their use (nuclear safety).
control of nuclear materials
The State System of
Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) is based on requirements resulting
from the Safeguards Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the IAEA.
UJD performs this activity according to the “Atomic Act” and relevant decree.
The purpose of the SSAC is also to prevent unauthorised use of nuclear materials, to
detect loses of nuclear materials and provide information that could lead to the recovery
of missing material.
The main part of nuclear materials under jurisdiction of the Slovak Republic is located at
NPP Jaslovské Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and at interim storage in Jaslovské Bohunice. Even
though that there are located more then 99% of nuclear materials in these nuclear
facilities, there are not any significant problems with their accountancy and control due
to very simply identification of accountancy units - fuel assemblies, and due to stability
of legal subjects responsible for operation and for keeping of information continuity,
which is necessary for fulfilling requirements of the Agreement.
The nuclear material located outside nuclear facilities is a special category. There are
81 such subjects of different types and orientations on the territory of the Slovak
Republic. These subjects use mainly depleted uranium as a shielding and small quantity of
natural uranium, low enrichment uranium and thorium for experimental purposes and
education. Frequent changes of these subjects, their transformations into the other
subjects, extinction and very high fluctuation of employees causes loss of information
about nuclear materials and creates problems with fulfilling requirements resulting from
In 2001, the UJD carried out 51 inspections of nuclear materials, of which 31 inspections
were performed at nuclear installations in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors.
Routine termly inspections, core verifications after every refuelling and annual physical
inventory are performed in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors. In addition to these
activities fresh fuel at every facilities during one day and transport of spent fuel was
verified. Regulatory activity in the field of accounting and control of nuclear materials
includes also processing of accountancy reports, special reports and advance notifications
received from users of nuclear materials, which are submitted to the IAEA, according to
the Subsidiary Arrangements to the Agreement and relevant decree of UJD.
No discrepancies concerning the management of nuclear materials were found out
during inspections and safeguards goals in year 2001 were fully attained.
Regulatory activity in
ensuring nuclear safety during the transport of nuclear materials and radioactive waste
was made in compliance with the „Atomic Act“ and particular UJD decree. These
documents contain requirements of the IAEA for the safe transport of radioactive
materials. During the assessed period following transports were carried out:
||5 transpots of
fresh nuclear fuel from the Russian Federation to NPP Bohunice and 1 transport to NPP
Mochovce; The fuel is stored in a fresh fuel storage of NPP Mochovce and NPP V-1 and V-2
||3 transports of
uranium concentrate from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation via the territory of
The transport of fresh
nuclear fuel and uranium concentrate was provided by the Slovak Railways. A spent nuclear
fuel being cooled for 3 years in storage pools of all 4 units of NPP Bohunice was
transported to the Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice. UJD issued a permit to transport
the fresh nuclear fuel from the Russian Federation to NPP Dukovany in the Czech Republic
via the territory of SR. UJD performed inspections of selected transports of the fresh
nuclear fuel and each transport of spent nuclear fuel.
All transports of nuclear materials in 2001 were carried out in compliance
with conditions of the UJD permit, there were no significant shortcomings found.