6. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS
The goal of the regulatory activity in the field of nuclear materials management is to ensure that nuclear materials are used in accordance with UJD permit and that they are not misused. To achieve this, UJD:
- issues permit for nuclear materials management only to those applicants who prove their capability to use nuclear materials in accordance with legal regulations and international commitments of the Slovak Republic; the applicant must ensure that nuclear materials are not diverted to nuclear weapons, or other nuclear explosive devices, or other activities which are in contradiction with international commitments of the Slovak Republic (safeguards and physical protection) and that the health of public is not affected by their use (nuclear safety),
- he carries out inspections focused on compliance with UJD permit conditions.
Accountancy and control of nuclear materials
The inspection programme of UJD in the field of accountancy and control of nuclear materials was designed to fulfil requirements resulting from the Safeguards Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the IAEA in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons (“Agreement”). Within the Slovak legislation this activity is performed according to the “Atomic Act” and to UJD Decree No. 198/1999 Coll.l. In 2000, the ÚJD carried out 50 inspections of nuclear materials, of which 29 inspections on nuclear installations were performed in co-operation with the IAEA.
Inspections of fresh and spent fuel at NPPs Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice were the main objective of inspections performed jointly with the IAEA:
- at VYZ Bohunice in Interim spent fuel storage the containers with spent fuel received from NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice were verified by high sensitivity gamma monitor,
- at NPPs Bohunice and NPP Mochovce the fresh fuel was verified in the fresh fuel storage (control of serial numbers according to the source documents and measurements of the content of 235U by multi-channel analyser) ; spent fuel in spent fuel ponds and reactor cores fuel loading after each refuelling was inspected. During each inspection the IAEA seals were examined and records of IAEA surveillance equipment was evaluated (containment and surveillance),
- a special inspection at NPPs Bohunice was focused on installation of a new type of the IAEA surveillance equipment SDIS,
- two inspections at interim spent fuel storage (VYZ Bohunice) were carried out due to installation of acoustic emission sensors,
- at NPP A-1 Bohunice two inspections were conducted to verify the absence of nuclear materials at the facility and to provide new “Design information questionnaire”.
An Inspection of holders outside of nuclear facilities was another area of nuclear materials inspection on the Slovak territory. Total 21 individual inspections of UJD were carried out.
Regulatory activity in the field of accountancy and control of nuclear materials includes also processing of accountancy reports, special reports and advance notifications received from holders of nuclear materials, which are submitted to the IAEA according to Subsidiary Arrangements to the Agreement and relevant decree of UJD.
No discrepancies concerning the management of nuclear materials were found out during inspections and safeguards goals in year 2000 were fully attained.
Transport of nuclear materials
Approval of package design and transport of nuclear materials and radioactive waste was made in compliance with the „Atomic Act“ and particular UJD decree. These documents contain requirements of the IAEA for the safe transport of radioactive materials.
Following transports were carried out during the assessed period:
- 2 transports of fresh nuclear fuel from the Russian Federation to NPPs Bohunice and 1 transport to NPP Mochovce; The fuel is stored in a fresh fuel storage of NPP Mochovce and NPPs V-1 and V-2 Bohunice,
- 3 transports of uranium concentrate from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation through the territory of Slovak Republic.
Transport of fresh nuclear fuel and uranium concentrate was provided by the Slovak Railways.
Spent nuclear fuel being cooled for 3 years in storage pools of all 4 units of NPPs Bohunice was transported to the Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice.
UJD performed inspections of selected transports of fresh nuclear fuel and each transport of spent nuclear fuel. All transports of nuclear materials in 2000 were carried out in compliance with conditions of UJD permit, there were no significant shortcomings found.
Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Nuclear Materials
Main activity of UJD in this field was focused on the inspection of the AKOBOJE (automated security protection system of nuclear power plant) physical protection systems being operated at the NPPs Bohunice and inspection of the AKOBOJE system during operation of unit 1 and commissioning of unit 2 at the Mochovce NPP. Until September 2000, the physical protection of the NPPs Bohunice and NPP Mochovce sites was provided by the private security service company in co-operation with police as response forces. After this date, top management of SE, a.s. as the NPP operator decided to provide the physical protection of the NPP Mochovce site by means of an in-house security service in co-operation with police as response forces. This approach has been implemented as a permanent solution at the NPP Mochovce site since October 30th, 2000. Meantime, however, requirements given by UJD's decrees were not met, and therefore UJD applied a repressive measure against the licensee. In connection with gradual reconstruction of NPP V-1 Bohunice and Interim Spent Fuel Storage Bohunice, UJD issued an endorsement of the modifications to the systematic protection at NPPs Bohunice so that the existing physical protection of the concerned buildings would not be impaired, and contractors could smoothly keep on working on the approved projects. The inspection activity at the NPP Mochovce was focused on compliance of the technical means of the AKOBOJE system during operation of unit 1 and commissioning of unit 2 with safety documentation. The inspections proved full functionality of the AKOBOJE security system at the NPP Mochovce. UJD carried out ten inspections aimed at the physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials during 2000. Out of these ten, four inspections were focused on modifications of the protection provisions of facilities at NPPs Bohunice and Mochovce. The shortcomings identified during the individual inspections were solved by the operators on-the-run according to the measures imposed by UJD.
Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials
In 2000 there were indicated no events with trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Slovak Republic. UJD has continued in co-operation with the IAEA in updating the database on illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Also in this year experts from Slovak Republic were participating on activities in the frame of the IAEA regional project focused on assistance to the member states in fighting against illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Even the number of events with nuclear materials is decreasing due to increasing number of events with radioactive waste the IAEA decided to extend this project to the year 2002.