National Report of the Slovak Republic - Radiation and Nuclear Safety , September 1998

5.2.1 Designing and Construction-Relevant Legislation

Project documentation was developed pursuant to the Decree No. 163/73 Coll. On Documentation of Buildings, Decree No. 105/81 On Project Documentation, and Act No. 50/1976 Coll. On Spatial Planning and Rules of Construction (Building Act).

Some quality-related changes in legislation related to preparation of construction occurred after 1978 when CSKAE Decree No. 2/1978 On Securing of Nuclear Safety in Designing, Approving and Implementing of Constructions with Nuclear Power Installations was issued, which set forth basic technical requirements with respect to nuclear safety, aimed at preventing environmental emissions of radioactive substances.

The design of the core and related protection systems must provide for keeping parameters of fuel elements during normal and abnormal operation below their maximum values, in the case of emergency condition the values of fuel element damage will not be exceeded. Limit parameters of fuel elements which serve as a basis for the shut-down of other equipment shall not be exceeded.

Control systems have to be equipped so as to monitor, measure, record and control systems of safety relevance.

Protection systems must be able to automatically start up systems for shut down of the reactor, and the operators must at the same time have the possibility of starting up these systems manually. Protective systems must be redundant and must enable to perform functional tests.

Design principles of the primary circuit must provide for sufficient strength under normal and abnormal operation so as to prevent loss of coolant, and to enable, throughout the operation, periodical or continuous monitoring of the primary circuit status and to allow tests needed to test nuclear safety.

Nuclear power installations must be equipped with a protective envelope which would provide, under conditions of leakage connected with radioactive substances, for a reduction of such losses to keep them below limit values if this function is not provided by other technical means.

Building structures, technological aggregates and safety equipment of have to be designed, manufactured, assembled and tested so as to ensure their reliable function. Manufacturers and suppliers of selected equipment (equipment of safety significance), their materials and components are obliged to specify in the documentation of supplies the results of selected output quality control and tests of material properties of components, equipment, basic materials, welding seams and welded-on pieces, along with material characteristics and composition and findings, and the elimination of deficiencies identified by the controls (CSKAE Decree No. 436/1990, Section 19). If special technological procedures may affect the resulting characteristics of materials and products, further tests (such as keeping of witness samples) have to be ensured in advance.

The Control system must enable monitoring, measuring, recording and controlling of values and of systems of safety significance. Devices and control elements have to be designed and located so as to provide the operating staff continuously with sufficient information on the operation of the nuclear power installation (CSKAE Decree No. 2/1978, Section 14). The operation control room has to enable safe and reliable control and checks of the operation. The human factor is only considered with respect to activities outside of the nuclear power installation.

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