National Report of the Slovak Republic - Radiation and Nuclear Safety , September 1998

4.1.1 Nuclear Safety Principles and Definition

Act No. 130/1998 Coll.ll. defines nuclear safety as conditions and abilities of nuclear installation and its operating staff to prevent uncontrollable development of fission reaction or to prevent unacceptable leaks of radioactive substances or ionizing radiation into the working or living environment, and to reduce the consequences of accidents and incidents.

Nuclear safety is the responsibility of the operator.

The operator is liable to provide for any aspects of nuclear safety, in particular

- competent staff,

- sufficient funds,

- continuous assessment of nuclear safety during the operation,

- protection against ionizing radiation,

- the issue of operating regulations,

- drafting of working programs.

Moreover, the operator is liable to identify responsibility and liabilities of the individual division so as to achieve efficient management and safe operation of nuclear installations in accordance with safety requirements.

Among other, the application of so-called ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is made mandatory for any work with ionizing radiation sources.

During practical operation, operators of nuclear installations have to contract other necessary specialized organizations to perform maintenance, operation or research-related activities. Such specialized organizations act as so-called supporting organizations, and participate, by their activities, in assuring reliable and safe operation of nuclear installations since the operator's human resources are unable to perform, either administratively , technically or due to lack of expertise, the works of such organizations.

The operator is responsible to provide the public with nuclear safety-related information. This responsibility does not preclude ÚJD's responsibility to provide the public with its own independent assessment.

Operator shall, draft regulations for any activity performed within the nuclear installation. If operating instructions have not been developed for certain activities, an operating program may be prepared subject to approval by ÚJD-set procedure. This could be a temporary solution which has to be subsequently treated in a regulation.

IAEA recommendations have been incorporated in internal documentation of both the Regulatory Authority and the operator.

The top level at operator's tier are QS concepts for individual areas, including nuclear and radiation safety where the priority of NI safety is expressed over any of the operator's other priorities. The management documents of the QS on nuclear safety, radiation safety and emergency planning apply IAEA safety standards and safety principles laid down in INSAG 3 and INSAG 4. The IAEA safety standards and guidelines represent a basis for the development of the working documents of QS as well as operator's operating documents.

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