human resources represent the principal precondition for a safe, reliable and
environmentally friendly operation of nuclear installations. „High quality of human
resources“ are understood as a set of professional, health-related and mental capacities
of the staff to perform working activities at nuclear installations. From the aspect of
working activities and their impacts on nuclear safety, NPP staff are classified into two
- employees which have direct impact on nuclear safety -
selected employees whose special professional competence has been verified (theoretical ,
written and oral exam and practical examination) by an examining commission established by
ÚJD, and to whom a Special Professional Competence Certificate was issued Special,
- employees with impact on nuclear safety - professionally
competent employees whose professional competence has been verified by an examination
commission established by authorized specialized facility, by written and oral
examination, and to whom a Professional Competence authorization was issued .
Pursuant to Act No.130/1998 Coll.LL. on
peaceful uses of nuclear energy, special competence of employees means a set of
professional knowledge, skills, practical experience, knowledge of the generally binding
regulations and regulations issued by operator that represent a nuclear safety-related
precondition to secure safe operation of NI, to prevent uncontrolled fission chain
reaction, to prevent of not allowed discharge of radioactive substances or ionizing
radiation into the working environment or into the general environment, and to minimize
the consequences of accidents and incidents.
Professional competence of staff means a set of knowledge and skills, attitudes and habits
required to be allowed to perform certain activities/works, as verified by authorized
The liability for the overall working (professional, health-related and mental)
competencies of the staff to perform working activities at nuclear installations remains
with the operator. Operator appoints only employees competent to work, and to perform
working activities. To every selected and professionally competent employee is issued
„Authorization to Perform Corresponding Working Activities“ as part of the nuclear
facility quality assurance. The authorization to perform working activities is issued for
positions of selected employees with valid certificates of special professional competence
for a given type of NI and for positions of professionally competent employees holders of
authorizations for the given NI. The authorization represents a document evidencing the
working competence of the employee with respect to regulatory bodies.
The organizational structure contains defined requirements with respect to working
competencies to perform working activities for every position, i.e. education,
professional, health-related and/or mental capacities and the prescribed types of
training. The immediate supervisor of the employee is responsible for meeting of these
Training - acquisition and maintenance - as well as development of working competencies of
the employees (knowledge, skills and attitudes) is managed at the individual NI by
„Human Resources Training“ departments according to adopted and regulator-approved
System of Staff Training.
The NI System of Staff Training is maintained and improved based on operating experience,
organizational changes undertaken, technical solutions (upgrading) of facility,
requirements of regulatory bodies, audits, IAEA reviews and recommendations. It is backed
by the necessary human, financial and material resources.
The training of the staff and third persons (third persons represent contractors ) is
being provided in accordance with documents of quality assurance programme set up and
maintained in accordance with:
- generally binding legal regulations applicable in the Slovak
- IAEA regulations, recommendations and guidelines,
- STN EN ISO 9001:1996 and 14001:1996 series standards,
- documentation of management within SE, a.s.´s Quality
With respect to the quality assurance
system, the top document for the entire area of human resources is represented by the
„Concept of SE, a.s.´s Human Resources Management“ with management documentation for
human resources management developed based on it, including staff and management training
and development at the SE, a.s.´s headquarters and at the individual NI.
The management documents set procedures and responsibilities for:
- selection and allocation of employees for positions,
- determination of the content and extent of training,
education and development of the staff,
- acquisition, maintenance and improvement of qualification -
professional competence of the staff,
- staff development,
- acquisition and maintenance by third persons of general
- staff re-training.
Fig. 4.2.3. illustrates the system of staff
training in place.
With respect to their allocation to basic training, employees are divided according to
activities performed by them into six categories that are further subdivided into
occupational groups and subgroups according to the occupational orientation:
category 1 - specified are employees with university diploma who perform
working activities with direct impact on nuclear safety (primary circuit operator, reactor
secondary circuit operator, head of reactor unit , shift supervisor , reactor physicist,
etc.). Their professional competence is verified by an examination before a commission
established by ÚJD that issues them Certificate of Special Professional Competence. The
certificate is valid for two years. Prior to the elapsing of this period of time, the
employee has to repeatedly pass the exam before ÚJD´s examination commission in full
extent, to have his/her Certificate renewed for an additional period of two years.
category 2 - technical and economical staff of operating, maintenance and
technical departments with university diploma or secondary education completed - they
comprise heads of sections, departments, divisions, head masters, masters as well as
employees involved in operation or maintenance of equipment.
category 3 - operating shift and operating staff, including employees
involved in operating activities at technological equipment.
category 4 - employees involved in maintenance (with the exception of
engineers) - employees involved in maintenance activities at technological equipment.
category 5 - employees in charge of NI decommissioning and handling RAW
and spent nuclear fuel.
category 6 - other employees .
Employees on positions hierarchically superior to specified employees, such as
vice-director for operations, chief engineer, head of operation control department, head
of nuclear safety department, and head of reactor physics department, must hold university
diploma in the field of technology / natural sciences - physics, and must have their
special professional competence verified, no further verification of the competence is
Facilities for staff training
The basic training for NI staff as well as those of organisations performing special
activities at NI is running at specialized training centers that are holders of
authorizations to perform specialized professional training of NI staff granted by ÚJD
upon such organisations meeting technical conditions and having verified the professional
competence of their employees performing the training. The professional training is
delivered in accordance with approved training programs.
- Introductory briefing and training of employees are
delivered by the individual NI.
- Basic training:
- basic briefing and training - repeated Category I training,
- Category I re-training,
- general training of third persons,
are delivered by specialized training
establishment, holder of the corresponding authorization for such activities. VÚJE
delivers basic and theoretical training, basic and repeated simulator-based training of
nuclear installation staff (with the exception of SE-EMO), while the individual nuclear
power plants delivering stays, in-service training and periodical professional training of
Simulator training is delivered:
- at multi functional the full-scope WWER-440/V 213 simulator
for SE-EMO, that emulates all standard and non-standard operating states of the nuclear
power plant. The training equipment is a true replica of the NPP Mochovce unit 1 control
room. It was built in accordance with the most recent US standards for staff training and
technical safeguards by the companies S3 Technology and Sidemen’s in cooperation with
SE, a.s. experts,
- at the multi functional and full-scope WWER-440/V 213
simulator for SE-EBO, units 3 and 4 at VÚJE,
- at multi-functional and full-scope WWER-440/V-230 simulator
for SE-EBO, units 1 and 2 at VÚJE. A multifunctional simulator for WWER-440/V-230 units
developed under PHARE-TACIS project by Corys-TESS, Siemens, Belgatom, Thomson and other
subcontractors was commissioned in February 1998. Also, a full-range simulator has been in
operation since 14 May, 2001.
- Other types of training (training of welders, NDT etc.) are
delivered by various training establishments or directly at NI operators, including
SE-EBO, SE-EMO, SE-VYZ by internal or external lecturers.
Basic training (theoretical training, simulator training, on-the job training) as well as
periodical trainings of staff for the performance of nuclear safety relevant working
activities at specialized establishments are delivered according to ÚJD approved programs
based on suggestions of specialized establishments authorized to train specified
Training programs have been developed for every category, professional group and subgroup
of employees separately while accounting for types and stages of training. These set the
objectives, content, duration of training, forms of learning and method of verifying upon
An important element with respect to qualification upgrading of the employees has been
cooperation with universities, in particular in the form of postgraduate and distance
studies at the Slovak Technical University, University of Economics, and Commenius
Fig. 4.2.3 Stages, content and forms of training for