RADWASTE GENERATION AND RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT SLOVAK NPPs
The producer of radwaste
should assure technically and organisationally to keep the amount and radioactivity of
waste as low as reasonably achievable. The complex program of radwaste minimisation is
prepared and annually evaluated at each NPP.
Filters, metal waste, concrete, burnable and compressible waste represent a solid radwaste. This radwaste is preliminary sorted at NPP V1 and V2 Bohunice as well as at NPP Mochovce at the place of its origin according to its activity level and next processing. Exact total data on generated and stored solid waste are not available, because some burnable waste are continually burned and are not in an accountancy and some types of radwaste are recorded by the operator only by pieces, tons or in dependence of storage mode. A trend of solid waste generation (expressed in m3) is presented as an example (Fig. 6.3). A significant increasing of solid waste generation in 1998-2000 was the result of NPP V1 Bohunice reconstruction. The generation of the most important kinds of radwaste in 2001 is presented in the Table 6.4.
As the original design of
NPPs was based on the conditioning and disposal of operational waste only after final shut
down, radwaste produced during the operation has been continuously filling in available
storage capacity. So nearly 8000 m3 of concentrates were stored at the end of
year 2001, representing 75.5% of storage capacity at Bohunice site. Total amount of solid
waste stored at VVER NPPs reached 3500 m3 at December 2001. The solid waste
storage capacity of NPP V1 Bohunice is spent.
NPP A1 BOHUNICE DECOMMISSIONING
NPP A1 Bohunice with a
heterogeneous reactor using natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by CO2
had been in operation for 4 years. It was finally shut down in February 1977 after an
accident (INES level 4). Recent decommissioning strategy was accepted by Governmental
Decision in 1992 and first decommissioning phase occurs in accordance with plan elaborated
and amended in 1994-1996. Radwaste management is involved into this plan. In 1999 UJD
issued the permit for this decommissioning phase on the basis of „Atomic Act“. Main
activities in 2001 were focused on an increasing of radwaste management safety by the
waste solidification or storage improvement, especially in the case of inorganic spent
fuel coolant. Also one half of vaults was emptied and reconstructed in the original solid
waste store. Fragmentation and decontamination of low contaminated scrap has continued.