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5) NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

The goal of the regulatory activity in the field of nuclear materials management is to ensure that nuclear materials are used in accordance with an UJD permit, which is issued only for those applicants who prove their capability to use nuclear materials in accordance with legal regulations and international commitments of the SR. The applicant must ensure that nuclear materials are not diverted to nuclear weapons or to other activities which are in contradiction with and international commitments of the SR (safeguards and physical protection), and that the health of public and environment is not affected by their use (nuclear safety).

Accountancy and control of nuclear materials

The State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) is based on requirements resulting from the Safeguards Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the IAEA. UJD performs this activity according to the “Atomic Act” and relevant decree.
The purpose of the SSAC is also to prevent unauthorised use of nuclear materials, to detect loses of nuclear materials and provide information that could lead to the recovery of missing material.
The main part of nuclear materials under jurisdiction of the Slovak Republic is located at NPP Jaslovské Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and at interim storage in Jaslovské Bohunice. Even though that there are located more then 99% of nuclear materials in these nuclear facilities, there are not any significant problems with their accountancy and control due to very simply identification of accountancy units - fuel assemblies, and due to stability of legal subjects responsible for operation and for keeping of information continuity, which is necessary for fulfilling requirements of the Agreement.
The nuclear material located outside nuclear facilities is a special category. There are 81 such subjects of different types and orientations on the territory of the Slovak Republic. These subjects use mainly depleted uranium as a shielding and small quantity of natural uranium, low enrichment uranium and thorium for experimental purposes and education. Frequent changes of these subjects, their transformations into the other subjects, extinction and very high fluctuation of employees causes loss of information about nuclear materials and creates problems with fulfilling requirements resulting from the Agreement.
In 2001, the UJD carried out 51 inspections of nuclear materials, of which 31 inspections were performed at nuclear installations in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors.
Routine termly inspections, core verifications after every refuelling and annual physical inventory are performed in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors. In addition to these activities fresh fuel at every facilities during one day and transport of spent fuel was verified. Regulatory activity in the field of accounting and control of nuclear materials includes also processing of accountancy reports, special reports and advance notifications received from users of nuclear materials, which are submitted to the IAEA, according to the Subsidiary Arrangements to the Agreement and relevant decree of UJD.
No discrepancies concerning the management of nuclear materials were found out during inspections and safeguards goals in year 2001 were fully attained.

Transport of nuclear materials

Regulatory activity in ensuring nuclear safety during the transport of nuclear materials and radioactive waste was made in compliance with the „Atomic Act“ and particular UJD decree. These documents contain requirements of the IAEA for the safe transport of radioactive materials. During the assessed period following transports were carried out:

5 transpots of fresh nuclear fuel from the Russian Federation to NPP Bohunice and 1 transport to NPP Mochovce; The fuel is stored in a fresh fuel storage of NPP Mochovce and NPP V-1 and V-2 Bohunice,
3 transports of uranium concentrate from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation via the territory of SR.

The transport of fresh nuclear fuel and uranium concentrate was provided by the Slovak Railways. A spent nuclear fuel being cooled for 3 years in storage pools of all 4 units of NPP Bohunice was transported to the Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice. UJD issued a permit to transport the fresh nuclear fuel from the Russian Federation to NPP Dukovany in the Czech Republic via the territory of SR. UJD performed inspections of selected transports of the fresh nuclear fuel and each transport of spent nuclear fuel.
All transports of nuclear materials in 2001 were carried out in compliance with conditions of the UJD permit, there were no significant shortcomings found.


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