4. ASSESSMENT AND INSPECTION OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS
Supervisory activity of UJD upon the safety of nuclear installations in compliance with the "Atomic Act "and other legal regulations includes also inspection and assessment activities of UJD.
Assessment activity of UJD in relation to nuclear installations lies in assessment of safety documentation for constructions realised as nuclear installations, or constructions through which changes are realised on nuclear installations. The scope of safety documentation required for the assessment is stipulated in the Atomic Act. In 2000 the assessment activity focused first of all on Unit1 of NPP Bohunice after completing its Gradual Reconstruction Programme, on National Repository of Radwaste in Mochovce and on radwaste conditioning and treatment technology in Jaslovske Bohunice. Activities of UJD in assessment focused mainly on control of compliance with requirements for nuclear safety, assessment of commissioning programmes, operating procedures, limits and conditions, etc. The assessment of changes, which influence nuclear safety of nuclear installations in operation, realisation of which is conditioned by the approval from UJD, is a significant part of the assessment activity of UJD. Mainly it is the assessment of design changes, changes in limits and conditions, operating procedures, changes in programmes of periodical testing of equipment important in terms of nuclear safety, changes in physical protection of nuclear equipment, etc. The assessment of nuclear installations operational safety, based on assessment of operational events, on maintaining limits and conditions of safe operation, on operational safety performance indicators and on inspection results is a separate category in the assessment activity of UJD.
UJD inspector of BSC RAW D. vorc during inspection
Since February 2000, a decree of UJD on nuclear installation events has been effective. The decree establishes a systematic approach to event categorising, reporting, and finding out their causes and to informing public on events.
Also the assessment of the technical condition of equipment important in terms of nuclear safety, primarily based on results of in-service inspections and surveillance testing safety related components and systems is a part of the safety assessment of nuclear installation operations. Assessment activity of UJD in 2000 was also aimed at applicants for authorisation in compliance with the "Atomic Act ".
Professional capability of applicants was verified in terms of:
- technical equipment of the applicant
- instrumentation equipment for measuring or testing, including inspection of meeting requirements specified by metrology procedures
- personnel for development of implementation documentation, as-built documentation, for assurance of technology discipline in manufacturing, including welding and thermal treatment; technical control and testing after completion of manufacturing (mounting)
- Quality assurance system determining system approaches (including responsibility) to the above activities.
Inspection activity specified in the "Atomic Act "is governed by an internal guideline, an important part of which is an annual inspection plan that considers the following types of inspections:
Routine inspections performed mainly by site inspectors. They look whether the nuclear safety conditions and requirements are met. They also examine technical condition of nuclear equipment, performing surveillance testing of nuclear safety related equipment, observation of fulfilment of approved limits and conditions, selected operating procedures and programmes of quality assurance during construction and commissioning, operation and maintenance as well as in decommissioning nuclear installations.
Special inspections are focused on specific profession areas (such as fire safety, qualification and training of NPP personnel, etc.), especially on inspection of meeting specific requirements of nuclear safety.
UJD inspector of MPPs Bohunice I. Moravčík during inspection
Team inspections are aimed at complex inspection of relevant nuclear equipment safety and they usually are being conducted simultaneously in several professional areas. The inspection of readiness of the nuclear installation for individual phases of commissioning is a typical example of a team inspection. This is the inspection of fulfilment of conditions imposed by UJD to the licensee to operate the nuclear power plant for issuing an approval to start up the unit after refuelling. Team inspections during operation are normally oriented to the areas, which are set based on long-term evaluation of results of nuclear installation's operator.
Extraordinary inspections are unplanned, evoked by unexpected operational events on nuclear installations, or the regulator responds by them to the situation in the organisation under supervision. In compliance with the "Atomic Act " UJD performs inspections also during construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of nuclear installations in a form of participation of UJD inspectors at tests of selected equipment after its assembly is completed. The inspection activity of UJD has been performed by nuclear safety inspectors, the most of them having long-term experience in the relevant area. Inspectors develop protocols in which the findings from these inspections are specified. This protocol also contains orders and measures imposed by UJD to correct the shortcomings found. Qualifications and examinations of nuclear safety inspectors are assured in accordance with an internal guideline of UJD. Inspectors take part not only in training courses and other technical meetings organised by the IAEA, but also in some special training courses organised in co-operation with nuclear safety regulators from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan.