National Report of the Slovak Republic - Radiation and Nuclear Safety , September 1998

4.2.3 Human Resources


Operator's management is fully aware that "good-quality" human resources represent a basic prerequisite for a safe and reliable operation of nuclear installations. "Good-quality" human resources mean a set of physical, professional and psychological competencies of the employees to perform work activities at nuclear installations.

Professional competence of employees is defined as a combination of education achieved, of employee's actual professional knowledge, capacities and skills, habits, experience, and attitudes necessary for the performance of work activities.

The overall competence of the employees to perform work activities at nuclear installations is the responsibility of the operator who is liable vis-a-vis State supervisory authorities.

Any work position has defined criteria of the performance of the function (activities) in the organizational structure of the installation., identifying criteria of the work-related competencies of the employee, i.e. education, health, and/or mental capacity, prescribed types of training. The supervisor of the respective employee is responsible for the fulfillment of these criteria.

A qualification file is kept for every employee, and is supplemented and updated on a continuous basis. The file represents a document of professional competence of the employee for regulatory bodies.

The operator has divisions responsible for conceptual management of human resources. They are called "Selection and Training of Human Resources". The training system is a continuation of the "Uniform System of Training of Nuclear Power Installations Staff" which was established in early 1978.

The staff training is characterized by:

Training and development of the staff and third persons is performed in accordance with the management standards on quality assurance program built and maintained in accordance with:

The top document of the quality assurance system for the entire area of human resources is the "Human Resources Management Concept for SE a.s.". Subsequent documents to this top document are as follows:

These documents set the procedures and responsibilities in the area of

The system of staff training has the following structure:

I Type of training

A. Introductory training

B. On the job training and/or adaptation process

C. Basic training

D. Periodical training

E. Qualification upgrading

II type of training - each type of preparation comprises a set of training types such as:

A. safety at work and health protection

B. fire protection

C. radiation protection

D. basic training - within 6 months of hiring, any employee has to be sent by the corresponding supervisor for basic training

E. on the job training

F. repeated training and re-training of category I employees

G. QA training

H. business management

I. professional courses, training and workshops

J. emergency and accident management training

III training category (basic training only) -from the viewpoint of the work performed and the corresponding professional training, six categories of employees are distinguished:

Category 1 - employees whose activities are of direct relevance to nuclear safety and operation reliability of nuclear installations: operating staff of control rooms, control physicist, simulator training instructor etc. All these employees have university education, and subsequently attend prescribed training and workshops. They have to successfully pass a demanding exam in front of ÚJD's State Examination Board. A "doubling" of several weeks follows during which the employees have the right to perform interventions at the workplace under the supervision of an experienced colleague. The employee is only authorized to work independently after this period of time. The authorization is valid for two years. The employee is obliged to repeatedly pass the exam in full extent in front of the State Examination Board prior to the expiration of the preceding authorization, to renew the validity of his authorization for additional two years.

Category 2 - technical and administrative staff of operation, maintenance and technical divisions including heads of units, departments, divisions as well as university- and secondary school educated staff holding positions in the divisions mentioned.

Category 3 - service shift and operating staff including employees performing servicing and control operations at the technological equipment.

Category 4 - maintenance crew - employees performing maintenance activities at the technological equipment.

Category 5 - staff working on NPI decommissioning

Category 6- other employees

IV training stages (basic training only)

A. Theoretical training

B. Practical stay on NPP

C. NPP simulator training

D. Training and exam for authorization

E. On the job training

F. Exam for authorization

Training Facilities

Basic training of NPI employees as well as of those from organizations performing special activities at NPI, is performed in training facilities and selected organizations authorized by ÚJD. They are liable, within the extent of their competencies, for the professional competence of employees trained by them.

a) Introductory training is delivered by the power plant.

b) Basic training:

is delivered by authorized organization (Training Center of Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants - TC VÚJE Trnava, and/or the individual NPPs SE-EBO, SE-EMO) in an extent as identified by the ÚJD-issued authorization based on the assessment of the technical condition of the equipment and verification of professional competence of the trainers; the authorization is valid for 4 years. The training is organized as follows:

c) Other types of training are delivered at various training facilities or directly within the NPPs SE-EBO, SE-EMO, SE-VYZ, by internal or external trainers.

Simulator-assisted training for the individual NPPs is delivered at the following facilities:

A project of the completion of the maintenance staff training center at NPP Bohunice is under development.

Training Programs

Basic training of the employees for the performance of working activities with relevance to nuclear safety follows programs based on the suggestions of organizations authorized to train selected employees and approved by ÚJD.

Basic training programs have been designed for each category of employees separately taking into account the type and stage of training. This training contains the objectives, contents, scope and duration of training along with the methods of training and methods of verification of knowledge acquired.

Authorization to Perform Working Activity (Function)

The organizations authorize the employees in writing for the performance of the working functions; the authorization evidences that the employee in question has successfully passed the prescribed professional training program, and his/her health condition and - if needed - also mental condition makes him/her fully competent for the independent performance at the respective working position.

The validity of the authorization is checked by his/her supervisor on a continuous basis.

Qualification Improvement /Staff Development

Qualification improvement and/or staff development is organized based on individual plans of personal professional training of employees developed by the respective supervisors based on:

Two basic objectives are met in the process of training: the Company´s (enterprise's) directed towards the development of human resources, and the individual's directed towards the development of employee's personality and career and his/her ability to adapt to the changing conditions of life.

In improving the qualifications of the employees, an important element is the cooperation with universities, in particular in the form of postgradual and distance learning (in addition to the normal working time) at the Slovak Technical University, University of Economics, and Comenius University, Bratislava.

With respect to the modernization of the technology, changes in organizational structure and implementation of new information systems, special attention is given to a comprehensive, continuous and differentiated training of managers and to the training of selected employees (category 1).


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