National Report of the Slovak Republic - Radiation and Nuclear Safety , September 1998

1.2 Concept of the Utilization of Nuclear Sources in Slovakia


The Joint Stock Company Slovenské elektrárne, with a total installed capacity of 6,587 MW representing about 87% of the total capacity installed in the Slovak Republic (see Figs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2) is the dominant producer of electricity in Slovakia. SE supplied 25.246 GWh of electricity which was about 88% of the total consumption of electricity in Slovakia in 1997. Thereof, 21,170 GWh were generated in own sources, 51% of which were generated in nuclear sources.

Fig 1.2.1 Installed capacity in SR

Slovenské elektrárne, a.s. operates two nuclear power plants. There are 4 WWER 440 units at the power plant Bohunice: Units No. 1 and 2, model V 230, and units No. 3 and 4, model V 213. Model V 213 (unit No.1) is in trial operation at the nuclear power plant Mochovce, unit No.2 is expected to be put into operation in 1999. Units No. 3 and 4 at the nuclear power plant Mochovce are under construction.

Fig. 1.2.2 Power sources in SR

Based on Slovak Government's Resolution No. 272 of 20 April, 1993, Slovakia signed the UN Convention on Climate Changes on 19 May, 1993 at the UNO Headquarters in New York. By having signed this Convention, Slovakia has accepted the commitments of the Convention, including a reduction of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Moreover, as an internal target Slovakia has set the reaching of the "Toronto Objective", i.e. 20% reduction in CO2 emissions through the year 2005 as compared to 1988.

Another document signed by Slovakia was that of the December 1997 Kyoto Conference, Japan. By this signature a commitment was undertaken to reduce CO2 production by 8% by the year 2010 as compared to 1990. The meeting of all of the above commitments is only possible provided that nuclear energy, water energy and alternative energies are utilized to a significant degree.

The current electricity generation from hydro power plants in Slovakia represents about 20%, but the availability of this source of electric power is directly dependent on climatic conditions. Other primary sources of energy such as crude oil, gas and coal, are rather limited both as to their quantity and quality. Under the conditions of Slovakia´s economy structure, other sources of energy generation may only be considered auxiliary energy sources; electricity and heat generation in nuclear power plants therefore play an important role in reducing atmospheric emissions.

Fig. 1.2.3 Production of pollutants by SE, a.s.

The development of the consumption and its coverage from various sources in Slovakia between 1991 and 1997 clearly show the irreplaceable role of the nuclear power sector. The share of electricity generated from nuclear sources represented almost 40% of total consumption in Slovakia (more than 50% of electricity generated by SE).

 

The previous development of electricity consumption (see Fig. 1.2.4) as well as future projections point to the lack of own sources of electricity in Slovakia, which suggests the need for imports. To secure safe, reliable, environmentally friendly and economical operations of electricity sources in the future, the company SE developed its own Program of the Development of the Production-Technological Base in accordance with the Updated Energy Concept for the Slovak Republic through the Year 2005 approved by the Slovak government on 30 Sept., 1997; the Program shall be updated at two-year-intervals.

Fig.1.2.4 Consumption development and production structure - SR

The development program (see Fig.1.2.5) has been set up using Least -Cost Planning (LCP) and Integrated Resources Planning (IRP) methodologies. Models of Electricité de France and LCG Consulting-California have been used for the above methodologies, and the development programs are regularly updated on a two-year-basis. Based on the national legislation, governmental programs on economy development, and based on the energy concept, the first step included long-term estimates of electricity consumption. The results of the long-term marketing study represent inputs of an economic study the task of which is to identify, based on economic comparison of several variant scenarios of the development of the energy system and on the energy concept of the Slovak government, the optimal alternative.

Fig.1.2.5 SE production-technological base development planing method

SE a.s. has decided to follow the optimal development alternative No. 2 (Fig. 1.2.7) which assumes the operation of V-1 units through 2005 (i.e. through the end of the planned life), and operation of units No. 1 and 2 at Mochovce as of 1998 and 1999, respectively. The objective of the finance study is to assess the possibilities of making funds available for the development program. Based on the studies mentioned, SE Production-Technological Base Development Program has then been developed. It is evident from Fig.1.2.8 that nuclear power sources shall still be playing an important role in the energy system of the Slovak Republic. With respect to this high share of nuclear sources, the joint stock Company pays special attention to the safety and reliability of both the existing nuclear installations and those under construction.

Fig.1.2.7 SE production-technological base development variants

 

Fig. 1.2.8 Consumption coverage from various sources. Variant No.2


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